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Full text of "How to teach drawing [microform] : a teacher's manual to be used in connection with class room practice ; containing suggestive lessons in landscape drawing, nature drawing, object study, figure drawing, animal drawing and design ; together with a glossary of art terms and a practical color theory"

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HOVV' TO TEACH 

DRAWING 



A Ttacbers' Manual to be used 
in connection 'nith Class Room 
Practice; Containing Suggestive 
Lessons in Landscape Drauing, 
Nature Draining, Object Study, 
Figure Draining, Animal 
Drauing and Design; Together 
•with a Glossary of Art Terms 
and a Practical Color Theory 










THE PRANG COMPANY 

NEW YORK r ICAGO BOSTON ATLANTA DALLAS 
WINNIPEG, TORONTO MONTREAL HALIFAX 






CopvriRht, I>I4 
By THE PRANG COMJ'ANY 



The Table of Contents 

I. i'lan and Punx)si„fr,raphic Draw inKHfK)ks . 7 

/ 2. The Use of Draw iiiR Materials .... 9 

3. ( Glossary of Art Terms ^- 

4. A Practical Color Thfor> ,, 

5. SugK'estive Lessc^i, - Landscapt^ Washes (Pri- 
mary Gr; * -s) 29 

6. Suggestive Lesson,— Seeing as a Preparation 
for Drawing (Primary Grades) • . 35 

7. Suggestive Lesson- Illustrative Drawing (Ad- 
vanced Primary Grades) ... .41 

8. Suggestive Lesson, — A Group of Objects 
(Intermediate Grades) .7 

9. Suggestive Lesson,— Decorative and C. struc- 
tive Design (Intermediate Grades) . . 56 

10. Suggestive Lesson,— Animal Drawing (Inter- 
mediate Grades) 52 

11. Suggestive Lesson,— Figure Drawing (Gram- 
mar Grades) g_ 

12. Suggestive List of Art Books and Art Ma- 
terials , 



The Graphic Drawing Books 






Plan and Purpose 

The "Graphic Drawing Books" present, in attrac- 
tive form, a Course of Study in Drawing, Design and 
Industrial Work. While these books are based on the 
same philosophy that for years has been the educa- 
tional foundation of the Prang Courses in Drawing, the 
work presented is noticeably affected by the new inter- 
ests that have recently been occupying the attention of 
the educational world— the industrial interests and 
their relation to manual training and the crafts. It is 
felt that the more our schools undertake to train along 
industrial lines, the more essential becomes art in- 
struction that is thoroughly sound in its theory and in 
its application. 

The authors of these books believe that the teach- 
ing of Art in public schools is upon a sound basis only 
when it rests upon an understanding of principles; they 
also believe that appreciation of the beautiful is best 
accomplished through the study of principles and thor- 
ough practice in the elementary modes of expression. 
These modes of expression should include, not only 
exercises in nature drawing, picture making, etc., but 
should also include practice in the useful arts— those 
arts which are vitally connected with the homes, the 
occupations, and the natural interests of the people. 

The exercises through which these principles are 
presented have been carefully prepared, in order that 
they may suit the different grades of children in school. 
There are nine books in (;he series — one for each year 
in the elementary grades and a book for High School 
students. The beginnings of all the different lines of 



THE GRAPHIC DRAWING BOOKS 



work, such as nature drawing, design, construction, 
etc., are found in the book for the first year in school 
and these vanous lines of work are gradually unfolded 
in the successive years by means of exercises planned 
to attract and develop the growing interests of the 
pupil. Changes in modes of expression and in me- 
diums employed, assist the development of the work 
and keep the interest alive. ' 

A unique feature of these books is the presentation 
of a scientific Color Theory that is so simple and so 
well graded that it is not only practical from the 
teachers standpoint, but easily understood by the 
average child. It is coming to be seen that Color is 
at the basis of much of our Art work, and that it must 
be taught scientifically and not by "guess-work " 
The series of eight Hand-Painted Color Charts in these 
books are epoch-making and invaluable. 



Drawing Materials 

• ^P'"^^^"^ Books are planned for the use of pupils 
in the class room. The illustrations present the 
material chosen for the lessons (such as plants, objects 
landscape, design, etc.) and show the manner of render- 
R^u ^."""1"^ feature of the "Graphic Drawing 
Books is that the processes and technique are pre- 
sented by steps that are illustrated. As a rule, other 
senes of Drawing Books have presented the finished 
product, and the manner of arriving at such results has 

ttl Tt^uf '^ ^"^ ^^^ P"P^' ^"d ^« the inexperienced 
teacher. The blank pages in each book are to be used for 
preserving the exercises done by the pupil, so that at 
the end of the year he may have a record of the work 
accomplished. 

Mediums 

Pencil black and colored crayons, water colors, 
manila and tinted papers are the mediums employed 
in the development of the work. In the first and 
second grades the black crayon found in the "Cray- 
onex box or in the "Art Education Box," No i or 
iNo. 2, is recommended, instead of a pencil. 

Use of the Pencil 

The pencil is the generally accepted medium for 
^uT^^ ^^ expression in drawing. Results can be 
obtained by the use of the pencil that cannot be 
secured in any other way. A pencil having a soft lead 
IS best suited for general drawing in the class room. 
(The Prang Sketching Pencil, or the Prang Drawing 

r^fhK- ' ^^\L ^ '""''^^^^ P«'"t may be secured by 
rubbing the lead on a piece of paper. In making a 
sketch, try to obtain the desired effect by direct strokes 
ot the pencil, that is, do not work over any part of the 



DRAWING BiATERIALS 



drawing several times, as this will produce a flat, life- 
less result. Keep the work as simple as possible 
Study the specimens of pencil handling in the drawing 
books and note how the direction of the strokes ex- 
presses mass, as well as the quality of the surfaces. 

Use of Crayons 

1 • ,^°!P7^ crayons are especially adapted for many 
kinds of decorative work. They may be used in con- 
nection with Prang Colored Drawing and Construction 
papers in making borders, surface patterns, stencils, 
illuowations, decorative landscapes, still life and pose 
drawings. The black crayon is an excellent substitute 
for charcoal, as it is less expensive an^ does not re- 
quire "fixing." 

In using the Crayons, care should be exercised in 
laying one color over another so as to secure a har- 
monious blending. The best color effects can be 
obtained from Crayons that do not contain wax, such 
as the "Art Education Crayons," No. i or No. 2. 

Use of Water Colors 

Water Color is the most desirable medium for 
coior work. In working from nature, more satis- 
factory results can be obtained through the use of 
Water Color than with pastels, wax crayons, or col- 
ored chalks. In using the brush, either with color or 
with ink, enough color should be taken into the brush 
to make a bold, free stroke. Washes in large masses 
should be made with the side of the brush, and line 
work and outline drawings with the point of the brush. 
In painting masses or in laying washes, the paper 
should be held at a slant, so as to allow the excess of 
color to run to the edge, where it can be removed by 
means of a dr>' brush or a blotter. 

The brush should not be used for cleaning the box. 

10 




Decorative Landscape Compositions. These may be 
Traced and Filled in with Color Schemes 



II 




Decorative Landscape Compositions. These may be 
Traced ana Filled in with Color Schemes 



13 



DRAWING MATERIALS 



After each lesson, the brush should be rinsed in water 
and the water shaken out. Do not wipe the brush, but 
allow It to dry, as this will preserve its shape. No 
smaller brush than number seven should be used. 

The Mixing of Colors 

The Prang 3A Box contains red, yellow and blue, 
and black. The first three are known as the Primary 
Colors, and from them any desired color can be made. 

Red and yellow mixed produce orange. 

Yellow and blue produce green. 

Red and blue produce violet. 

Red, yellow and blue produce the neutral tones. 

Black may be used to darken any of the colors. 

The combination of two Primary Colors produces 
a Binary color. Thus orange, green and violet are 
Binary colors. 

All colors in full intensity are called Normal colors; 
that IS, the, are not grayed. The addition -f a third 
Primary to a combination of two Primaries has the 
effect of graying the color. For example, normal yel- 
low and normal blue when mixed in equal quantities 
produce normal green. The addition of red renders 
the mixture gray-green. Nature shows very little color 
in full intensity, or normal. 

There are many hues of color which classify unde, 
the general name of green. They comprise many varia- 
tions of yellow-green, blue-green and gray-green. These 
vanations of color are in direct proportion to the quan- 
tity of the three primary colors. 

As has been stated, yellow and blue when mixed 
produce green. If much blue and little yellow are com- 
bmed, a blue-green will result; if much yellow and a 
httle blue are combined, a yellow-green will result. If 
red IS added to either of these resulting hues, they will 
be grayed, httlr. or much, according to the quantity of 
red added. 



»3 



DRAWING MATERIALS 



Since the rombination of red and yellow produces 
orange, it is apparent that much red and little yellow 
will produce a reU-orange; much yellow and little red 
^r^'l^.'^y^^^?'^ -orange. Agan. the effect of adding 
the third Primary Color (in this case blue) is to gray 
the orange. *" ' 

The same is also true with red and blue, which 
when mixed produce violet. A red-violet is formed 
jf more red than blue is used, and n blue-v.olet if more 
blue than red. All the resulting red-violets and blue- 
violets may be grayed by the addition of yellow, the 
remaining Primary Color. 

Before attempting to mix a color, anayze it in 
some such manner as follows: Suppose we wish to re- 
produce a color which is a blue-green-gray. Since it is 
a blue-gr'.en, it contains more blue than yellow, and 
being gray, it must have a considerable amount of red' 

In mixing colors, use from the yellow or red before 
taking blue, thereby keeping the surface of the colors 



Use of Colored Papers 

The use of colored drawing and construction papers 
has become an important factor in the development of 
Art Education in the public schools of the country 
Papers of a firm texture and of carefully se ectcd colors 
may be used for various purposes, such as: water-color 
studies still life groups-drawn with colored crayons 
and white chalk-paper construction, industrial work, 
design and for mounting. By means of these papers 
beautiful color combinations can be secured, and a new 
hne of interest awakened with less effort than with 
material formerly used. The lighter tints can be used 
for pencil work and outline studies in sepia, while the 
soft grayed colors are suitable for winter landscapes, 
still life, and figure drawing. The darker shades fur- 
msh an excellent color scheme for boxes, portfolios, 

14 



DRAWmo MATERIALS 



and toy furniture. (Prang Colored Drawing and Con- 
struc ,on Papers are uniform and of fine quality A 
sample book of these parsers of "Prang Drawing Pa- 
pers will be sent teachers on request.) 

Selection of Specimens 

Encourage pupils to bring specimens for their 
nature lessons. Select those that will best show the 
characteristic of the subject. A large spray is better 

l^tL^T- ••''"^ ^n ^^"^ "^*"^^' S'"«^th is not vio- 

lated, this pruning will simplify the study. 

Arrangement of Studies 
The preparation of the naterial for a nature 

rom"nIantT'' ""r.'""'' ^" ^^^^'"^ ^' P^'"ting 
trom plant forms, fruits, vegetables, and still life the 

p&^'a t^P^^' ^^ ^^"^ ?^^ P"P^' -" '- it 
[o fin ;i. "^tisfactory way to show the specimen is 
to fill glasses and bottles with wet sand, sa that the 
flower or grass will stand upright. Plice these on 
boards across the front desks of alternate aisles. When 
the specimens are small, additional studies should be 

downThe afsle ^'^''^ ^''^'^ '^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^'^^^ 

th;c ??^.^^°""d« should be placed behind studies of 
this kind. Do not ask pupils to draw from a small 

otr ^t^LTrt ':^''''' '-'^ - p^"-^ ^« ^^^ ^«P 

Mounting Work 

.r^^^^^\ sufficient practice in any lesson to secure 
good work has been given, one or tw. of the results 
should be neatly mounted on the blank page of the 
book, ..^posite the lesson under consideration. This 

15 



DRAWm O MATERIALS 



hif thf °"^ ^y tnmming the edges of the drawing so 
that the arrangement on the page is a gor>d one. The 
appearance of the sketch is much improved if it is first 
mounted on a piece of harmoniously colored pap^r 

all ddes^ ^ '"^'^'" ^ ''"^'^^' °^ ^" '"*'*' ^° project on 

.1, .V^^m!" °^ "^^^^'" ^^^^^ ^° the four corners of the 
sketch will secure it to the colored paper, and simi! 
Wly. a touch ol pastt to the four corLVof the tinned 
paper will secure it to the page of the book. 



I6 



A Glossary of Art Terms 



ACCENTED LINE: A line that is varied in strength beinir 

ecpress certain qualities o. lorm and texture. Sometimes it i« 
broKen, the eye seen ing to continue the outiin? 

^^Pi^^" u^*™"8; touches of color or of dark value, soarinirlv 
placed, to bnng out certain qualities of form or texture *^ 

^^I-?5f' ^^® expression in a drawing or painting of an 

B 

^^SSKtuiie^ :?:^:2n°^ ^" ^^"'^*"'^"' °^ ^-p*^- 

far'helt'f^om^theoLJ^rer.""^"" "''^' "^^^"^ -'^^^ » 

^VSS^lf!^ '^' J*? "^^"^^ •"" ^ f*'^"^ « to indicate by light 
lines, Its general size, shape and proportion without anv 
attempt to show a finished dVawing. *~'^"°"' w«no"t any 



"i^Tac!l"S uSL^''^^^- -^^ •'^ - <>^i- "Pon the 
CHARGING THE BRUSH: Filling the brush bv dippin,. it 

mLrL^brusHirj:^"'^;. "^. '^T^^^" charged UhS" 
means a brush filled with color, but not dripping. 

COLOR SCHEME: A range of colors found in mature or uspH 
in designs or in pictures; as, the color scheme S a n^turtiSm 
may be orange, red, yellow-green and greerof a Sc (Sle^ 
gray-green, gray-orange and black, etc ' °' ^ ^^^ cover. 

^ ?i!l^^III?^=. ^ '^°"^'^*^"' ^^-"genient or adaptation of 
hn^, shap«, values or colors, resulting in beauty. Comoosi- 
tions may be pictorial or decorative in char^ter ^°™P°*'- 

CONSTRUCTION PAPER: Any paper heavy enough to re- 
tain a shape when folded and lighfiJougrS: cut and ^te 



17 



A GLOSSARY OF ART TERMS 



D 

DECORATIVE TREATMENT: Treatment that does not 
■eek to express fact or reality, hut aims to express arranire- 
ments of hnes, masscj. or colors, whether from natural or 
abstract motives, m acconlance with the principles of design. 

DESIGN: An idea or thought expressed in an orderiy way. A 
design may be pictorial, -corative. or constructive in char- 
aCicr* 

^]?'J^NCE: That part of a picture which is near the horizon 

DOMINANT COLOR: A color that enters into and influences 
all other colors; for mstance, m a landscape where the golden 
sunlight of eariy morning seems to bathe every object, yellow is 
the dominant color; on a rainy day, gray is the uominant color. 

DRAMATIC ACTION: Acting a scene, an occupation, or a 
game, for the purpose of strengthening a pupil's mental image. 



EFFECTS: Graphic expressions or results which suggest: as. 
sky effects, clouu effects, stained-glass effects, etc. 



FINDER: A device used to assist in the making of compositions. 

FLAT WASH. FLAT COLOR. ETC.- An even tint of color 
or gray, showing no variations or modelln g. 

FOREGROUND: That part of a picture which represents 
what IS nearest to the observer. 

FORESHORTEN: To represent a surface or an object so as to 
convey the impression of its full extent, although but a shorter 
or narrower extent is actually shown. For example, in a land- 
scape the surface of the earth from foreground to horizon line 
is represented m a very short space, although the effect may 
be that of several miles. Again, if an object with a circular top, 
such as a tumbler or a bushel basket, is : en slightly below the 
level of the eye, the appearance of the top is foreshortened,— 
It appears not as a circle, but as an ellipse. 

I8 



A QtOSSARY OP ART TERMS 



G 

^'^^Vi^ r^>I^9R- A neutrali/ecl color- a color th.t i 

•fi«I. by the addition of its CimmlcmJntar^Z .( " '"™'- 
red IS grayw hy the addiiinn /'/'|'"^'"*'""0 , or of gray; as. 

I>y neutral Kra>Vv«it i^ L^^^^^^^^^^^ "r 

Rray. etc. ^^""^^^^ ''> >'^""W. or by neutral 

H 

HANDLINr,: Another mm-, f^, . u • 

manner in whwThoVi^c i,'a.„S'''T;,r"'''" ' ? ""• 
»l»ak of pencil hamllii « waterj^t?, l ii- "' J""'".'''-, we 
diinu. «c Direct ha™nn»^T7,M''"''['"'f' '•'•'"■ual hin- 

-iml result witS-'ut trad^^.^t'S'fhXTh"'" "■'■','"• 
second t me over a surfa^ i „ "■i"'^ ..'.'"»" '"^ l*""! a 
brush or pencil in an eat^' (ri^ Handling: {hwg .he 

directly w^Thout :"wo?l<i^g'*oS^^an"XT: '^^^^l 1)1'"' 
IS opposed to ■• tight handling." ' ^^ handling 

"IS". s^n"'"i*„^an'"objr." "' ■"""■" ■" ""*'""' <•' *"!'«' 



'-o^l^^U'l^i^US'^det-re'tL"'^,'" ""^''O" - - 

"o'^p^n^Sra^hfg'---^ '"^ "'™ ^V ^^"« only; .he 
''^kJ; T,''?h'*'T ■^^ P"'!;"' "'• '^^harac.eristic color of an 

MASS DRAWING: An expression of ch . 

nearlv flat tone of color or np!^rT ^^P? ^^ "'«^"« of a 
suggesting onJy tL most im^r.lf ^^^'^'^'"'"^^ ^^^^•'«' «"d 
or form; t'he op^sileTuneX^^ng '""'""^ '" ^''^ '""''^'^ 

^"^rcSifoSr.. '^For'iiite'we" '"1"'? Y^'^'^ ^"P-"^ <^har- 
muscles. in drawbg Sffi" „% "f'^f °^^ 
vegetable or a 'eaf f mcSe^^ .1^^^,^^^"^^^^^^^^^^ 

19 



A GLOSSARY OF ART TERMS 



MOT-^VE: The idea or suggestion upon which a design (usually 
flower form, or abstract, as a geometric line or shape. 



-y 



N 



^ni!I^^ ^^^,"= A, *'"t ^fg'-ay Obtained from ink or black 
pamt; a neutral wash may be any degree of gray between 



black and white. 



OCCUPATION WORK: 
educational ends. 



O 



"Busy work" planned for definite 



''^!'!'J^^' -v ^"•■(a<^\"Po.n which paints are mixed. The cover 
of the pupil s pamt box is designed to be used as a palette 

PENCIL PAINTING: Expressing the qualities of an object 
by nieans of strokes made with the flat side of a long lead veTy 
much as a brush is used. ^ ' ^ 

PICTORIAL TREATMENT: Treatment that seeks roexpress 
in an artistic way. fact or reality; realistic rendering *^' 

^hf.'o^*'^ attitude or position assumed by a figure, in order 

• 'i^:'- rsju'j;::^'"^ '"^^ ^ -^^- ^--»^ --times 

R 
RENDERING: The manner of doing a thing; as, "the picture 

SfarcoS — th^ ^"'•'' '''^''T" "^h ^•'^tch was rende^S n 
charcoal, the music was beautifully rendered." 



SKY LINE: The line made by shapes, such as hills, trees roofs 
chimneys, etc. cutting against the sky. A sky liS?'is noi 
necessanly the horizon line. 

STILL LIFE: Objects without life, although fruits and flowers 
are frequently included in the term; so are mounted birdsTnd 
insects, or other animal forms from which life haV gone In 
Sr";w .°° ^^^' '*'" '1^^ '^^^'^ to objects selected for 
f^r stidy """ '^' °'" ^'■^'^"* interesting problems 



f 



30 



A GLOSSARY OF ART TERMS 

^^for^sJudy. ^" °*'^''' °' ^ ^'■^"P °f ^''J^*^ ^>«^t«l or arranged 



TECHNIQUE: The peculiar handling of a medium rem.lHn., 
"^fa^l^dS"^^ "^5""^ "'•' -"^""^ i" "Wch a sketch or design 






"^^ST'^^BriiargS 



"'tak"ove? a'l^K""'*'"' ""^"^ °' ^ ^"''^- "I "^ter, color, or 
necessary for the construction of the obj^t 



ai 




i 



A Practical Color Theory 

sense '^J sZe^enm^knoJJleZ"^ ,"' ""* ^'"^ 
nensphlf. Ao,-^ ^'^"""^ Knowledge of color are indis- 

value unless iuiusri" ''" ' P'""°- " '^ "^ «"'^ 

Spectrum Colors 

If we place a glass prism in the sun so thaf ;> ,•»„ 
of light passing through the prism is throw^ on a whS 

rintw seriet7cJoV''^Ar T" "■^f-"'- t'h': 
colors of the spec rTm ^fejfn''"'''? "^^ ''^wn as the 

intel^^'dS^US-Sntt^-^inr^^^^^^^ 

83 



A PRACTICAL COLOR THEORY 



resent by pigments. In dealing with pigments wp 
find that three of the six colors seen in the^s"m a^e 
the basis for all other colons. These thr^ Ydlow 

ar'e'in'l^'"?' "^^^" ^""^^ ColoL,' b'aus^thT; 

The Primary Colors 
These colors, Yellow, Red and Blue are elements 
each one totally unrelated to the other tL From 
their mixtures, with the use of black and white aT^ 
other colors may be made. ' 

The Binary Colors 

The union of any two Primary Colors Dro'dures ^ 
new color, called a Binary Color Th".7?« [hf • 
of yellow and red produces^thetnary'^o^angt union 
of yeHow and blue produces the binary green • the un on 
o^ red and blue produces the binary violet Orang^^^ 
green and violet, then, are known as Binary Colors 

Hue 

Hues are the steps between Primary and Binarv 
Co ors. Hues are named from the amount of Primarv 
vet ^"^T\ ^""^ ^"«^^"^^' to normal ^een ad J 
«HH w' ^""^ J'"r ^'"^" ^« produced; to normal green 
add blue, and it becomes blue-green. Yellow-green and 
blue-green, then, are hues of green. ^ 

Tone 

ibie to ?hiUo^* T^''"" ^^ ^*^f ^ °^j^^t« become vis- 
iDie to the eye. It is a general term for any soot of 

color, gray, black or white, as the musical term ' tone " 

means any musical sound or note. "-**' ^^^"^ t*^"^ 

24 



^-A 



T H 




Pis. t. 



Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 




FiK. 3. 



Positions of the Pencil 




Fig. 4- 




Fig. 6. 



L.of E. 




The Cube at Forty-fix. ■ DeT-r 



V.P.L 







V.R2. 



The Cube at Thirty and Sixty Degrees 



25 



in 



A PRACTICAL COLOR THEORY 



Normal Colors 



, The perfect standard type of any pure color ,« 
known as normal or standard color. ^ 

Value 
The quahty of a color with reference tn Icrh*^ o a 

Intensity 

bnlhancy is red in full intensity. greatest 

Neutral Colors 

fhp nK ? ^- ^^ '"^ absolute neutrality. Black 

„n- f"";;' ^ '^^'"'■' ^^ ^ "^"tral tone. White the 
union of all colors, is a neutral tone r^u !i '•, 

are arbitrary tones used as neutral" ' ^''^ ""^ ''^^'' 
Tints and Shades of Colors 

in vaL than'"::?, Zl^a^cXd ^hatT %t7 
A Color Scheme 



t 



26 



A PRACTICAL COLOR TH EORY 
MONOCHIiOMATIC COLOR SCHEMES 

values of a 0010^^ oran- r k,^^"^« '"^y be different 

or different int;^^dero7:'S; S ofan^f' r"^^^' 
sity, orange grayed one h^\f IZi ^ "^^ ^"" '"^en- 

fourths). ^ one-half, and orange grayed three- 

Complementary Color Schemes 

cont^.Ts!':TXi:t: oti-r ;'""• ^-^ ->- 

Phasizing each Xr Cn J.i ^^ °^ enriching or em- 
the Color Circle See .h?p^^T".^^^y ^«'«»-« o^^^ur in 
site ends o diameters Wh"^ ^°^°' ^"'"^^^ ^' «PP«- 
schemes are used the color^ complementary color 
raying, unless ^a ^^^L^^^S^^^^ 

Analogous Color Schemes 

those'^wtf areTdTaLn^^^ • i"^'P^-« -«'«- are 
Circle (See the fccnT "^g^^oring in the Color 

yellow/yelloil^oraie^nd oT^^^^^^^ ^"^ ^^^'^'P'^' 

analogous colors • red rpW.-T!^ J ^'^'■?' """^ S^'O"? of 

When usedTn pracdc^l n^^^^^^^^^^ ^"^ T^^^"' ^^''"^ ^"o^her. 
be grayed. ^^''^'''P'''^^^"^^' analogous colors should 

How Colors May be Grayed 

touch^Tit?!:LSen^ -^^^^ ^^ ^^^-^ a 

added to a pool of norSln -i ^ P^^" ^ater-color 
red; a touch^f red addTn / '^" ""^^^ "'^^ ^^ 8^ay- 
will make lay^^^^^^^ ^, «^^^" Pool of water-color 

equal partsTf're'd w"il rfs'ult ^n''^^°^^""" ^^^^^ to 
with all other P^lrsl^^XL^en^^^^^^^^^^ '' '^ - 

27 



A PRACTICAL COLOR THEORY 



How TO Mix Colors in Half Intensity 

Three parts of one color, as yellow, plus one part 
of another color, as violet, will result in a tone in half 
intensity of the dominant color, as gray-yellow, one- 
half. Three parts of violet plus one part of yellow will 
give gray-violet, one-half, etc. Colors in full and half 
intensities are illustrated in the Prang Color Chart 
No. VII. Colors in half and quarter intensities are 
illustrated in the Prang Color Chart No. VIII. 

Pigments 

Pigments are materials employed in producing 
paints, dyes, stains, etc. They are not absolutely 
pure, as they must of necessity contain more or less 
alloy. Hence color tones produced with pigments can 
never attain the purity, brilliancy, and luminosity of 
the colors of the spectrum. 



28 



Suggestive Lesson No. i. 
Subject: LAN DSC A PK WASHES 

(For Primary Grades) 

Lessons in landscape washes are given to children 
in primary grades with a twofold purpose in mind: 
( ) to teach the free handling of the brush and color in 
blending colors and in spreading washes; (2) to direct 
the observation of children toward large masses in na- 
ture—the sky, the ground, the distance— cultivating 
appreciation of the beauty of nature under different 
conditions, and giving children some idea of how these 
beauties may be expressed. Exercises such as the 
following give children the joy of color handling, and do 
not tax them with the drawing of details. Children see 
masses before they are conscious of details; hence the 
representation of sky, earth and distance by meaAs of 
color washes seems a natural expression of universal 
surroundings. 

Materials needed for each child: Prang water-color 
box and brush, water pans, 6x9 manila paper, trunk- 
board or back of pe/icil-tablet, a small sponge or soft 
cloth, and a Graphic Drawing Book" for the grade 
being taught. (These materials may be grouped for 
each aisle and placed on the front desks; at a given 
signal they may be quickly passed back, down the aisle.) 
VVe are all ready for our lesson, but we must not 
handle our materials until it is time for us to paint 
Who can tell me what time of year it is? Yes it is 
spring. Wonderful things happen out-of-doors in spring. 
Who can tell me some of them? (The seeds sprout the 
Howers come the grass becomes green, the leaves come 

''''^\uH ,7^^' Y^ ^" ''•'^ ^^^ ^P""g- and are glad to 
see the fields and meadows green again. Look out at 

20 



I'l 



OUTUNB OF DRAWING 



o™v™r";.",r" '" ™'^ "'-'' ""'"-- -^-o- 



the sky this bright, sunshiny day, and tell me whn. 
color It IS. Yes, it is a bright blue Is the "lev al» v ! 
blue? No. indeed! We know there are many da s 
when the sun does not shine and the sky isTulL S?e, 

"Sky SO blue, 
I see you. 
Grass so green, 
I see you." 

Open your drawing books.* Who can find a picture 
that shows the blue sky and the green grass and 
nothing -Ise? Arthur has found it. It is a^Sre of 
ou^of-dc rs. and we are going to try to paint a picture 

^^f£!T- M^' 'I"' ^f ^ pleasant day in^sprirVg.' 
when the sky is blue, the grass is green, and it is time to 

Dart of thl il r P- 'V,' '^y °' ^^""^- ^^«' the larger 
part of this picture is blue; we see in the picture more 

sky than ground. Close your books and watch m^ I 

am going to paint a picture for you, something likethe 

one you have just seen in the book. We call a picture 

of out-of-doors, where we can see land and sky and 

sometimes trees, houses and water, also, a landscape. So 

to-day we are going to paint a spring landscape Here 

^ I dfo it^Jntn ?H-P^^M- .' ^'^^ ^° "^°^«t^" it all over, 
fh Ai PJk '"^S this pail of water. If I press it against 
the blackboard with a clean blotter it will keep in place 

W^ h E^'"u . n ^T ^ ^"^ '^^^y to n^oisten my colors 
With a brush full of water. I make a stroke across the 

tend^^o'^'t^S^^r; -^^^^^^^^ [n any book, but arc in- 

present any le^n in drawhff ^ ^^^ *''* ^^''^^' *'^" »"*e^P'-et and 

30 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



ACQUAINTA.V E WITH THE MEANINC. OF ALL NEW TERMS IS AN 
IMPORTANT PART OF V.Mll LESSON ' ' 



tops of all tlu« paints. This moistens the dry colors so 
that they are ready for u^e. I wish to take some hUie 
pamt m my brush, so [ wt my brush ajjain, shake off 
he extra drops of w ater, and draw the brush across the 
top of the blue pamt, then carry my brush to the moist 
paper on the blackboard, and place it at the upper left 
corner. I carry the stroke straight across the paper to 
the upper right corner. Lifting my brush. I Ix-gin 
again at the left side, placing my brush a little lower 
than 1 did iH'fore. and carrying the stroke across as 
before. Again and again I go across, until I have 
hied my paper with the blue wash. If I need more 
blue m my brush. I dip i„to the cake of paint again. 
VVhat have I painted? ^^.s, a piece of the blue sky. 
But 1 wish to paint some ground, with green grass on it. 
1 take a little blue pamt in my brush, and then draw my 
brush once again across the wet cake of yellow With 
these t\yo colors I make a stn)ke across my paper a 
httle be ow' the middle-. What new color have I made? 
(L.reen.) Yes, I have a beautiful green, the color of the 
grass in the springtime. I will carry this color across 
my paper, taking more color from mv paints as I need 
It, until I have filled the lower part of my paper with 
the color of green grass. What have I painted.? A 
little bit of out-of-doors, which we will call a landscape 



"Sky so hliH', I see \()u. 
(Irass so grctn, I sic y..... 
I see ><)ii and love yoii, and so i will paint you. 



yon. 



My picture is finished and I shall take it down Could 
you paint one like it.> Yes. I think you could, if you 
were very careful to do just as I did. What did I do 

the b;"ish^' rt P^''^''^!"''>- ''«^,«-^'f '•>• n-ians of a water-wash apphed with 



33 



OUTLINE OF DRAWmO 



S!vr"L™^ "''"'' ^'^^'^^ TO DRAW. MAKE SURE THAT THEY 
L^IL "^ "^^^ l^NDERSTCX^D THE TEXT ACCOMPAN^O Z^ 



first? (VVet the paptT.) Fred may pass the pail of 
water and you may dip your papers in it." ^ 

Lay the wet paper on the tablet-back, and oress i 

fc^'°/r "^'^'^ ^« ^^^^ "P the drops of water 
What IS the next thing? (Moisten the pafnts Who 

next^TTl'' ''"^ ' i"«i«tened mine? VVhat do we do 
or^y .(T^ke pamt for the sky-wash. etc. The dais 
proceeds m this way until all the steps are accomplished 

succe^^'the'sfpn ^- "^r" " ^^^". '^^^"' ^^'^^ reasonable 

the next ste^?h.'"H'''"^ f T"' '^^y ^'^ ^^^^y for 
me next step—the placmg of d stance. The narir ic 

moistened, and the sky-wash added, as before ^ihe 
dis ance .. .., distant trees) is painted before the fore- 
ground of green is added, using a violet mixture m^dt 
by taking a very little blue, a little r J and i ^f,t 

&"stroke'^^'' ^"' ^^^P'l'"^ "- - sho 
Thil u \J^: J''^ represent the shape of tS trees 

n L V xt ! T^ ^y ^^^^ °^ brushes that are far 
\ ^:, I^^ ^^^^^^'^ ^'ho^'d paint before the c ass and 
shouW then remove her picture, and req^^e the 'work 

guidance."' '''" '^ ^^^P' ^y ^^^ ^hildL. underTer 



34 



i 

4 



Suggrestue Lesson No. 2. 

Subject: SEHING AS A PREPARATION 
FOR DRAWING 

{For Primary Grades) 

mZtv"- '' ".'!■" word JnrdVr":'/p^^k''^Xe 
iimig 10 say. In children s drawinirs weak anri fo^ki 

the children's observation to essential points 

1 he exercise here given is supposed to precede ^ 

«.ms; CO or and shape of leaves; compari^^^^f pLdcu 
ll^.T"' ";"\°"'er growths of brown-ey^l Su^n- 
adaptation of the size of the drawing paSr ToThe 
shape and s.ze of the specimen to be dfawn^ "" 

1 he teacher is before her class with a fine snerin- • 

olht^ s^Srn^ln^rrt-e ''^ "-"■ -'' ^^^^^ 
Who can tell me the name of this flower? (Several 

35 



Ml I 



M 



OUTLINE OF DRAWING 



WHEN PUPILS UNDERSTAND WHAT TO DO, ALLOW THEM TO DO 
IT THEIR OWN WAY 



names will probably be given, such as daisy, sunflower, 
etc. The teacher decides upon or gives the correct 
name.) Yes, it is called the brown-eyed Susan. I won- 
der how it came to be called that? (Because the center 
or 'eye' of the flower is a beautiful brown.) Where does 
it grow? Do we plant its seeds and raise it in our flower 
gardens? No, it is a wild flower, and we find it in the 
fields and meadows, and along country roads. Who 
can tell the color of the blossom? (The children will 
probably answer 'yellow.') Yes, some people would call 
it yellow, but it is not the yellow of the dandelion or 
buttercup; it is a deeper and richer color, like the out- 
side of a certain fruit that we all like. Who knows what 
the color is? (Orange.) Yes, the brow^n-eyed Susan has 
orange petals, and a deep brown center. What is the 
shape of the blossom? (Round, like the daisy or sun- 
flower.) There are many flowers that are round like 
this— that have a central part with petals growing 
around it. Such flowers are not hard to paint, for we 
can make each petal with a single stroke of the brush. 
Who can tell me something about the leaves? They 
are green, of course, and what shape are they? (Some- 
what long and pointed.) Where is the widest part of 
each leaf? (Near the middle.) Does each leaf grow 
by itself on the stem? (No, they grow in pairs.) When 
leaves grow in this way. we say tJa^t they are 'opposite.' 
Look at the base, ojHb^r pkrt of a leaf, and see if 
there is a little stem? Yes," each Te^ has a short stem. 
Remember that, when you f»aint or draw this j 'ant. 
Are all the leaves the same size? (No, those ^t the 
top are smaller.) Now look at the main stem of the 
plant, and tell me where it is the largest. (It is bigger 
at the low^er part.) Yes, the stem is larger and stronger 
near the ground, and grows smaller at the upper part, 
near the flower. Do you remember the golden-rod? 



^ 
♦' 



36 




A Flower Study Well Composed and Correctly Spaced 



i 



11 



37 



■1: 




l\ 



A Growth of Cherries, Decoratively Treated 



38 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



HAVE PUPILS STUDY FOR THEMSELVES THE TFVt ak.^ 

TIONS IN THE DRAWING BOOKS '''''' ILLUSTRA- 



I 



/I 



Now. let us open our Draw ns BonK Wh f j ^""• 
-e? .{A picf e of the brol-eyo^d Su'Jnf tiZ 

LT^'-r^^J *"?"'^'' 'P'^y of this same piant Te 
me how It differs from the one we have The child-n 

te oXrf" Who "' ";',rV^'^ '°°'' ^ ""'<^ Cer thln 

At the sides UW ' l*""'. "^'' ^""«''' P*'"''' ="•«? 

back ) Nofi. ■ u"'"'; ""^ ^'""■"^^' petals? (At the 

fir«r tI ^H^ flower IS to be placed, and paint that 
first Then with a single brush stroke, we St each 

ZfjS^T'^Mt'T' ^"^'u^' ^^^ petals' iSlcfonge' 
green we tn. flZ T"? '^' ^^""^ ^^^^ ^ stroke of 
E!.!u' ^ f'^^ ^"^ ,^^^^ the leaves with the side of the 

t"not"tk%at' '%f^ ^"^^' - ^^^^ *h^ '-ve 
^rt„r. . V u ^^"''y ^^^^" the leaves in the 

picture, to see if they were painted in that way 

39 



n j 



^1 



OUTLINE OF DRAWING 



BEFORE DISMISSING THE CLASS FROM THE LAST LESSON OF THE 
WEEK, TEACHERS SHOULD ASSIGN AND DISCUSS WITH THE CLASS 
THE LESSON OF THE SUCCEEDING WEEK 



To-day we have become acquainted with w«. 
Hower. To-morrow, I will place plenty of brown-eyed 
Susans where you can see them plainly, and your 
pictures will te me how well you remember your 
lesson of to-day. 



our 



Note: In plant drawing it is of the iitmo«st itiimrtance that snerimfn.. 
are placed so that each pupil can see one plainly. Alain he teache^sh^uld 
see that the size and shape of the paper upon which tie children XfS 
SaSyVuC """^"^ '" '''' "^^ ""'^ shap^'ofThe'll^dmen 



40 



Suggestive Lesson No. 3. 
Subject: ILLUSTRATJVK DRAWING 

(For Advanced Primary Grades) 



In our desire to acquaint little children with the 
use of materials and with certain processes or methods 
of work, we are apt to forget that they should have, at 
frequent intervals, an opportunity to express themselves 
in a free and unhampered way. Without such exercises 
we shall fail to develop in the children any individuality 
of expression or any great freedom; they will fall into 
the habit of expressing, in the teacher's way, some idea 
that the teacher has imposed upon them. To offset this 
tendency, illustrative drawing is most valuable, and 
should not be neglected. In such work the teacher may 
help the children to think definitely about what they 
are to draw, but she is not to tell them what to draw, nor 
how to draw it. Neither is she to criticise, except 
incidentally, the technical quality of results; she is to 
look for the story-telling quality as the moit im- 
portant point, and judge very largely from that as to 
the excellence of the work. 

In presenting for the first time an exercise of this 
kind, a little device known as a " finder" will be of great 
assistaixce. This consists of a piece of cardboard or stiff 
paper, measuring four by five inches, in which a rec- 
tangular opening is cut out, the opening measuring two 
by three inches. A finder and Drawing Book should 
be on each child's desk. 

"In your Drawing Book are many pictures — pic- 
tures of out-of-doors, of flowers and plants, of children, 
of animals, and of many things that you see about you, 
or of things that you are some time going to make. 
On some pages of your Drawing Book there are pictures 

41 



M 



OUTLINE OF DRAWING 



r^n^^?''' "^ 'T'* ' •'""^'"'' ^'^'''"' ^'J^^' ^^ I'ttl^' frame. Who 
can tell nie what is in the frame?" 

fhr. i^ ^'""^-T ^^^^"t-"<"-doors in winter —some bushes 
the sky, a girl with a sled, etc." "usnes, 

almost^Iiik^'^^n/^T' u'l '■"'"''"'^ '^'"^'"'"^^^ that look 
almost alike and yet which are not just alike, after all 

Who c:an tel me what the first picture shows.^"' 

Just the sky and the ground." 

scinP T' V ^'^"^ ^^[/^rst little painting of the land- 
^^cape. Is there anything in the second picture that 
Ave do not see m the first.? Who can tell.?" '"'^ ^^^^ 

1 here are a few clouds in the second picture." 
. f fi \u '-J 'x- ^^'^^ t'^'^*'^ l^^'^^t"^^" that is not in either 
trc(s. It IS the best picture of the three to look at 
pTe'as^a^t'i;; '-^ "^ "' ^'"i ''''I ''''' '""^ ^^^ fields and a 

sr ti-s^i^eP- ^^-^"^ ^^^'- ^'^« -" ^' - 

fh. y\'' chiklren describe what is shown, guided by 
the teacher s questioning.) sumcu uy 

''Now, Alice may find a picture in the book —the 
one she likes the best of all,-and Ruth may descr £e 
the picture that Alice has chosen. You see th Jt pictures 
tell us stearics, sometimes better than words can tell us 

s^ wen if" h "". ^'^' ^""^ ^^^^^'"^ ^«°k or your read'; 
so well if they had no pictures in them, would you? Let 
us close our books, and find pictures somewhere else 
On your desk you Mill find something that looks like a 
httle picture-frame. VVe call it a finder, and you wlfsee 
how useful It IS in helping us to find pictures Take up 
your htt e frames; hold them with both hands in fron? 
of you, like this." (The teacher holds hers in both hands 



42 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



THE BEST TEACHING IS THAT WHICH RESULTS IN FITTING THE 
STUDENT TO STUDY INTELLIGENTLY WITHOUT A TEACHER 



at arm's-length, straight out in front, with the opening 
opposite her eyes.) "What do you see in your picture, 
Mary? 

"I see the teacher's desk, a chair in front of it, and 
back of th.nt the blackboard." 

"What do you see, Harold?" 

,j 'l\ ^?,^ ^^^ window-sill, with the plants and the 
gold-fish. 

"And what does Henry see?" 

" I see Jennie's head and shoulders, the bow on her 
hair, and the desk in front of her." 

The finders may be moved about and new pictures 
found, the exercise being planned to assist in concen- 
trating the attention on some definite space. 

"You have seen to-day how man>- pictures may be 
found inside these little frames. I am going to ask you 
to take the frames home with you, and look at some- 
thing on the way, or at home, that you think would 
make an interesting picture. To-morrow vou mav 
tell me what you saw." 

Upon resuming the exercise the following day 
the children are asked to tell what pictures they saw 
through their finders. The answers may be some- 
what as follows: — 

"I saw a high fence with a bush sticking out over 
the top; the top of a house showed in the finder, too." 
I saw a dead tree, with a bird's nest on one limb 
and a big white cloud in the sky, behind the tree." 

r 1 ' li ^^^ ^ "^^^ carrying a bag upon his back. A 
little black dog was trotting after him." 

I' I saw some boys playing marbles on the sidewalk." 

11 , . J ®^V r^ ?^°^^' ^^^^ ^^^ barrels and boxes and 
all kinds of fruit outside." 

The teacher who is able to sketch upon the black- 
board will find the interest (and hence the memory and 



43 



.25^ O^ DRAWING 



imagination) much increased ,7 T 1" 

quickly upon the blackK^lr!? ^''^ sketches very 

described by the S^erLTdT'' ' ' '""'^ P'<^^"'2 
I>ne to represent the finde"' or fh. ^ "^'"^ ^" enclosing 
picture. In such work u^ ^ho L^'T^"^' 'P^^^ of the 

chalk and draw only tL impor^^^^^^ " ^^°^^ P'^^^ ^^ 

Now you mav L^J important masses. 
what you ^.w-nTin't.n^l'.-nd paper and ,el. „,e 
^ I can tell what you hive «en '^n""''''- ' «"" ^^e 

words but let your^ictures teTi the sSrv™ ' '"P'"'" '" 
i he next phase nf ft,; ■ . ^'^o'^y- 

some definite fhou^t sunnrd'' '' ""■ ■""''nation of 
teacher. Up to this ,i>int^he ounH '"t.^^'" u" ''>' 'h"^ 
the.r own separate ways earh '^"]"'''.}'"'<^ been going 
thought to be iilustrat«f ■ Now ^''"''"^ "-^ 'dea o? 
mon thought, to be foHowed ^It ^^ "*"■' *'"' « com- 
■ttle m,nd and imagina fon ^av n?rt '""•''^ ^' """^^ 

apron tied with a big bow h, th„ k'*^?' ""'' " white 
she wore the queeres? suTbonnl't^t ever^sL'^!^ "''' 

conveyTpfct^rlZ^talltTSr'"/ '"'' -"0"ih to 
crayons or water-colors Jre , "^1?"'' '""'^'- C<^"^ 
work, though it can (J h *^ ' ."'^'^'^nce to such 
"ayon, or tvith bJush ^d Tnk. "" "''™"'' '""^^ 





Croups in Outline. Well Composed and 
Correctly Spaced 



45 



U II 







Showing Blocked-in Sketches of a Group of Fruits 



46 



Sugyrcstivc Lesson No. 4. 
Subject: A GROUP OF OBJi:CTS 

(For Intermediate Grades) 

A successful lesson in object or Rroup drawing 
dept'uds very largely uix)n three thiuKs: (i) on the se- 
lection made of the objects or groups Uy be drawn ; ( 2) on 
the number and [)Iacin.ij of these objects or j^roups- ( 3) 
on the points develoiK-d liy an intelhjient presentation 
ot the lesson by the teacher. 

It IS essential that as nian>' ^^roups shall be proNided 
as there are aisles in the room, -a group to be placed on 
boards across every other aisle on the fn^nt desks, and a 
second group placed half-way down the same aisle This 
enables every pupil in the room Kj i-ct a good \wv< of 
some group, and permits individual obserxation. which 
is the end sought. Never ask all the pupils in a rocmi 
to dra\y from an object or a group placed upon the 
teacher s desk. This is a very common and serious 
mistake. 

The points to be de\el()ped in the presentation , 
such a lesson are as folhnvs: choice of objects of simple 
construction that seem to belong together; that are not 
just alike in size; that show contrasts of light and dark 
values; the arrangement of the grouj) for unit>-; the ex- 
pression in the drawing of pro|)er size, relative projMjr- 
tions and distance; the characteristic shape or outline of 
each object in the group. 

Materials: The Drawing Book intended for this 
grade pencil and 9" x 12" manila paper on each desk. 
We are going to make a study to-day of a group of 
two objects, and I want >-ou to observe the group bef(jre 
you so carefully that you will be able to draw, after this, 
any group of two objects iliat you mav see. Look at 
the group before you. Helen, what are the objects in 
your group.?" 

47 



^\ 



^BitaawT 



OUTLINE OP DRAWING 



''A tea{X)t and a cup." 
"Fred, what is in vour ffroup?" 
''A pitcher and a lx)vv'." 
''Grace, what have you to draw?" 
*' I have a saucepan and a turnip." 

What have you , Fred ?" 
I' A glass with a straw in it and a lemon." 

C harles may tell what he has." 
"An earthen kettle and a beet " 
"What has Kthel?" 
"A watering-pot and a fl«wer-jar." 

' 7''* ^'''""''' ^r." ^" '"ff^'rent, you soe, yet they are 
made of common things that we use at home. I have 
put m them the thmgs that are often used together, and 
are often seen m each other's company. This we must 
a ways be careful to think about when we are arranging 
objects. Suppose- I had arranged a group of this kind : 

o.Lwv ^^^ ""rP"^? tJ^^^^'ai^nng-Pot and the lemon 
together); or like this: (the flower-pot and the sauce- 
pan); or like this: (the glass with straws and the 

sf"rTna^' \v '^''" 'J u'^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^''°"P« ^""'d seem 
strange. VVe would have an effect like discord in music 
^ you see that we must look for harmony in our groups 
as well as in our music. groups 

"Look at your groups again, now that I have ar- 
ranged them as they were before, and tell me about the 
sizes of the objects. Belle, are your two objects of 
the same size.? 

"No, the teapot is larger than the cup." 
"In each group you will find that there is a differ- 
ence m size; there is something tall and something 
short, so that the shapes of the objects in vour drawing 
will not be of the same size, or their tops appear on the 
same level. We must have variety in our drawing 

Look again at your group, William ; you are look- 
mg at the pitcher and the bowl. Which is the darker 
of your two objects?" 

48 



/ 



FREEHAND-DRAWNGiOFA-CABINET 



J 





m 





m 



»0« lntk.vt» 



# --" '^E^^ I 



A Working Drawinf? of Three Vwws, a Persfjective 
Skctih and Detail Drawings 




Composition and Spacing of a Group of Objects 



49 







moM THE rRANC PROGRESSIVE LESSONS IN ART EDUCATION SECOND YEAR. 

How to Paint and Mount a Mnpic Leaf 
50 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



"The bowl is dark brown, and the pitcher is light 
with a blue band near the top." ' 

I' Belle, which is the darker object in your group?" 

"The saucepan; the turnip is almost white, and 
the outside of the saucepan is dark blue." 

"You will find that each of your groups has a dark 
object and a light object. Even in this group (the 
lemon and the glass) the glass looks very light because 
It has a light paper behind it as a background, and the 
lemon is darker, in effect, than the glass. We have 
spoken before of this quality of light and dark as 
value. So we see that it is well to have in our groups a 
contrast or variety of values. 

"Once again study the group before you. This 
time observe carefully how the objects are placed in 
relation to each other. You do not see them just alike 
of course, for some of you are sitting on the left of the 
g-oup you are to study, and some are on the right. 
But you can tell me something that is true about the 
arrangement of the objects. 

"Alartha, ca: /ou tell me how your objects are 
placed.'' 

"They are placed near together." 

]|Yes,theyareneartogether;butaretheyinarow?" 

^^ No; one object is a little ahead of the other." 

"That is right; in all the groups one object is a 
little ahead of the other, and to-day I have placed in 
each group the small object a little in advance of the 
larger. John, do you see a space between your objects?" 

"No. I am looking at the teapot and the cup, 
and the cup laps over and hides a part of the teapot." 

"Charles, you are sitting on the other side of the 
aisle; how do you see it?" 

" I see a little space between the objects; I can see 
all of the teapot and all of the cup." 

"I wish you would all look at your groups, and 
hnd out whether your objects are spaced a little, or 
whether one object hides a part of the other. (The 



51 



OUTLDfE OF DRAWING 

children observe, and make the various reports.) You 
see It does not matter whether the objects are somewhat 
spaced or whether one hides a part of the other If 
spaced, the distance between them must not be so great 
that we lose the idea of a group; and if they seem to 
overlap, one object must not stand directly in front of 
he other, like this (demonstrates), so that^he sha^ o 
the group is unpleasant. ^ 

h.fr.r7^^''t '^' ""T T""^ ^^^"S ^^^t we must find out 

before we begin to draw. Look again at your group 
Observe the height of the taller and farther object See 
where the top of the nearer and shorter object comesin 
relation to this height. Is it as high as the middle of 
^e arther object or is it below or above the middle 
Nellie, you are looking at the lemon and the glass. Tel 
me how high on the glass the top of the lemon appears " 

middJo^%hfgSs!?' ""' °' ''^ '^"^^ ^^"^^^ ^^^°- ^h^ 

" Do you know, Nellie, where you would draw the 

bwer curve of the lemon in relation to the base o^ the 

;;U would come below the base of the glass." 
mat is nght. This is a very important point 
and we will be able to understand it bet^r if weTok 
at some pictures. Open your Drawing Book to a page of 
object drawing. Find a picture of a group som™ 
like the groups you are studying. There are two 
objects, a kettle and a beet. Look at the dra^ng of 
the beet, and tell me where the highest part of the 
curve comes in relation to the kettle " 

"It comes a little above the bottom, and hides a 

l?.T °^ ^^^ '"^^^^e of the kettle." 
to theYetde?" '^' ^''^'""' ^^'' °^ '^" ^^"^' '" ^^'^^'o" 

;; It is quite a little below the bottom of the kettle." 
c«o«, .1" another page of object drawing. Which 
Set?"^' "'^''' '° "'' '^' P""^P^" °^ ^^e bushel 



5« 




I 



A Perspective Sketch from the Object 




Showing Grouped Objects Treated in Outline 
Note the Composition and Spacing 



9^1 



53 




Mass Drawings, from Common Objecti 



54 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



"The pumpkin." 

"Yes. Notice that it is drawn lower on the paper 
than the basket. Turn to another page showing 
object drawing. Which is the nearest thing to us in 
this picture?" 

''The boy." 

"Yes, the boy is a very h'ttle nearer to us than the 
tree, and both tree and boy are much nearer than the 
distant trees. \'ou will find that the nearest thing to 
us in pictures is always draivn lowest on the paper. 
The only other question we have to settle is how much 
lower on the paper we must place objects that are near 
in order to express just the right amount of distance. 

" Close your books and place your papers in jiosition 
to draw. Before you draw the shapes of the objects in 
your group, I wish you to place four short dashes to 
show the height and width of the larger and farther 
object. Then place four dashes to show the height and 
width of the smaller and nearer object, being sure that 
you place this second set of four dashes in the right 
relationship to the first set. When this is done, draw- 
through these dashes light pencil lines that will show 
the general shapes of the objects. Then I will pass 
about the room, and see if you have located >'our objects 
to express your group truthfully." 

The work should be carefully looked after at this 
stage, as the expressions of distance and of relative pro- 
portions are more important at this time than the 
careful drawing or the finish of the objects. The 
pupil should not be allowed to "finish" his drawing, 
even in outline, until he is able to block in the objects 
-to show distance and relative proportions. When he 
can do this, not only from one group, but from an>- 
simple group of two objects, he may draw the outlines 
carefully, working over the light " blocking-in " lines, 
and may finish his drawing in accented outline or in 
values, as the teacher may decide. 



in 



55 



Suggestive Lesson No. 5. 

Subject: DECORATIVE AND CON- 
STRUCTIVE DESIGN 

(For Intermediate Grades) 

h.l..^^/r^ ^^m'"^ "P ^^^ particular lesson outlined 
below, the pupils are supposed to have accomplished the 
work usually covered in the Primary Grades. They 

nencT ml':/^" ''"•"' ^'''^ "''-'-■"^aker. test-square, 
pencl manila practict paper, scissors, some large 
simple flower like the dog-wood blossom, and the Draw- 
ing Book on each desk. 

in whl^^ are to have a most interesting lesson to-day, 
in ^v hich we shall use our circle-makers and test-squares 
As a beginning, you may draw a circle on your papers" 

ctrhavt Kat^..^' ^ ^"^'^^- ^^^" ^^^^^ ^'' '-' 
three'inches.'-'''^^"' '" ' '"^ '"''^^'' '^^ ^^^"^^ter will be 
" Very well Let the circumference of your circle be 
drawn with a light pencil-line, and be sure that the circle 
measures three inches in diameter. Using your test- 
square at the center of your circle, rule two radii at right 
angles to each other. Repeat to secure four right angles 
jlres?-'" ""^"^ ^"^^^^^^rs have you in your cifcle,' 

''We have two diameters." 
''How many radii, Julia.?" 
"We have four radii." 

parts',"Sorge?"" '""'^' *' ""■"'" '"'° ''°* """"^ '^l"^'' 

'' Into four equal parts." 
. ''Yes, we have four spaces, just alike in shape and 
size, m our circular held. Let us suppose that we wish 

56 



i-o 



mnmnm 



-i III. 



^.^..a. 



Simple Elements of Design 




( i^^w^ifm 



Two Decorative Arrangements of Nature Forms 



r 1 




I^SfeS^Sj 




IT~7~W 



^ 



Insect and Flower Motifs used in Design 



57 



& 



ii 




Structural Designs 






i 



) 




) 





^- c'T^ 






V 



^JtXJlXL 



at(^ 



The Use of Borders 
58 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



^ 

s 



to make a decoration, something like a rosette, within 
our circle. How many units, or shapes, would the divi- 
sions already made within our circle naturally suggest?" 

"We could repeat a unit or shape four times, 
placing one shape in each quarter of our circle." 

"Yes. There are many arrangements that we 
might make, but I think you will know what arrange- 
ment I have planned for you if you look at the flower 
on your desk. Do you know what flower it is, Malx-l.?" 

"I think it is the blossom of the flowering dog- 
wood tree." 

"So it is. Some other simple flower might have 
l>een selected, but the dog- wood blossom was par- 
ticularly good for our lesson to-day. Do you know 
why, Frank.?" 

(Frank examines the flower.) 

"I think because it has four large petals, and we 
have four spaces to fill in our circle." 

"Yes, it will be easier to arrange four shapes than 
five or six or seven, in the circle as we have divided it. 
Some other day we will plan a design in which we will 
repeat more than four shapes about a center. You may 
each pull off one of the four petals of your flower, and 
lay it on your desk, where its shape may be plainly seen. 
Make a careful drawing of it in life size What do you 
notice about its shape, Edward?" 

"The part farthest from the centjr is widest and 
the petal has a little scallop or notch in the top." 

"Yes, that notch or scallop is one of the character- 
istics of the dog- wood. Kate, will you look at the petal 
and tell me if the curve is exactly alike on both sides, so 
that if you folded it in the middle both sides would be 
precisely alike?" 

"No, the two sides are not exactly alike." 

" It is somewhat irregular, it is true. All natural 
growths are more or less irregular — some more so than 
others. But, from the suggestions of these natural 
growths, we can draw regular shapes that are suitable 



59 



. 



lir. 



orruifB OP DRAwnfo 



for designs I wish you, now, to take a small piece of 
paper and fold it m the middle. Near the crease, draw 
as accurately as you can the curve of half of your petal. 
Lut on this curve with your scissors, so that the folded 
yorMTnntr "^' Open your paper. What have 

r^Jlfhr^/ paper pattern, shaped very much like a 
petal of the dog- wood blossom." 

petal?'^^^ ^^ "°^ ^°"'" °^"^''" ^''^'''•y ^^^ *^^P^ °f ^^^ 

"Because my pattern is exactly alike on both 
sides, and the petal is not." 

r.,t lZ?u ""^^ ^"u^^ '/ y°" ^^" *""^ yo"*- patterns, or 
2lZT^\T% '^^^ '" '"^'■^ "^^^'y "J^^ the petal in 
mnS^Jl J^ r^ first pattern you made. The patterns 
must all be alike on both sides. Perhaps those you cut 
at the first tnal are too wide at the top, or too narrow, 
or too pointed or possibly the shape of the notch is not 
as t should be. Cut several patterns, if necessary, 
until you have a shape tha^ is as nearly like the flower 
shape as possible, and is perfectly balanced. 

Our next step is to lay our paper petal in or . of the 
divisions of our circle; place it between any tv of the 

ntti "°fiii°T ^ '^'^^".'- ^"^^' ^o yo" th.,.k your 
Sfn„M"? l^ ^^^ space (a quarter-circle) as well as it 
should.? Remember that we are to repeat the form 
our times about a center; each unit should, in this case, 
use nearly all the space allowed for it." 

,|I think my pattern is too smal!." 
..n;. T^' "P 5^°"^t yp^ will all wish to enlarge your 
ri^- n "^'^ ^'^^'^f "^^'^ *^" ^^^ board, with the four 
radu like yours, nd sketch, in one of the quarter sec- 
tions, a shape that I think is large enough, and you may 
decide whether your patterns should be enlarged or not 
m order to properly fill your spaces. You may trace 
iW^nn";?! •!" e°'arged pattern, correcting and changing 
Th^" L "^^""^ well adapted to your quarter-circle 
Ihen trace around the pattern, moving it to each 



60 



SUOOBSTIVB LESSONS 



? . 



field until four repeats are made. Join the outline of 
the petals somewhat as I have joined the units in the 
sketch on the board. When your rosette is complete, 
cut out the shape of the rosette, cutting on the lines 
that appear heavy in the blackboard sketch." 

^ Note: For the teacher's suggestion in making this sketch, Fig. i is 
given below. 

After having made a decorative form, the pupils 
will be much interested in applying it to some object 
that may be used. A pen-wiper suggests itself as 
particularly appropriate. In order to secure the right 
color combinations, the material would better be 
purchased expressly for this use. Three tones of brown, 
green, red, blue or violet may be ustH Talk with the 
pupils about the kind of material best for wiping pens. 
Bring out the idea that the commonest articles of 
daily use may be thoughtfully planned and artistically 
finished. 

Fig. 2 shows a pen-wiper made of three tones of 
brown flannel. The middle tone is used for the larger 
circle at the bottom : this is a circle that is 3K inches 
diameter. Several circles, 3 inches in diameter, 



in 



are cut from the darkest tone; these are the "wipers." 
The decorative top is cut from the lightest tone, using 
the paper pattern prepared from the dog-wood blossom. 
The several circles are then arranged as shown in Fig. 2, 
fastened together with a cross-stitch, and finished with 
a small, flat button, of suitable color. 




ftm.l 




Vi«.t 



Suggestive Lesson No. 6. 
Subject: ANIMAL DRAWING 

(For Intermediate Grades) 

In the primary grades animals have doubtless Ix-en 
drawn or pamted to son^f^ extent, but such work has 
probably appeared in cairnc tion with illustrative draw- 
iriK. HI which animals are sketched from memory. (> 
If It has Ix-en possible for sketching to be done from' 
animals brought to the schoolroom, there has been 
probabb very little analysis of forms or proportions.' 
In the intermediate grades the methods of presentation 
are H.rterent in this as well as in other divisions of draw- 

" •"•. i Pu^P''"" ^^^ ?^^ ^" ^^"^y animals in the same 
- f.int that they are led to study still life objects, flowers, 
or the andscape-as features of their environment, as 
parts of their life. For this reason, we cannot afford to 
neglect so universal an interest as animals in planning 
an educational course. ^ 

The common domestic animals should be studied 
trom hfe. In every schoolroom, some pupil will be 
tound who IS willing to bring a pet dog, cat. rabbit, or 
Pigeon to schoo . Or, a hen, rooster, duck, goose, or 
turkey may be borrowed or rented from a market if 
these fowls are not procurable from the homes of the 
children. ^^ Of course, the animals must not be expected 
to pose, or to keep a fixed position for any length of 
!!!"^'umT"^ ^^''''' Pfe^nce in the schoolroom will enable 
the children to study their proportions and their charac- 
teristics, even if their positions are constantly changing 

1 here are many interesting ways of beginning this 
work with pupils who have not studied animals serious- 
ly before As a preliminary exercise, the pupils may be 
asked to draw, m mass or outline, any animal that thev 
can remember. Select ten or a dozen of these attempts, 

6a 




FaptT Cut Animals 




Designs on Squared Pap-r 




A Decorative Treatment of a Plant Form 



63 



^^^^^ ^ 



1 1^ 




if:: 



ift 



Objects That Are Like a Sphere 



^ 0^ I 



Action Silhouettes 



64 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



I 
I 



place them before the class and call upon the pupils to 
name them. After this experience, the pupils will prob- 
ably realize the necessity of a closer observation of 
animals than they have before given. 

Let us suppose that a fox terrier has been brought 
to school for the lesson. If he is a well-trained dog he 
may be induced to stand, sit or lie upon a table, in front 
of the school. The pupils are supplied with practice 
paper, charcoal or soft pencil, and the Drawing Book 
for the grade in which they are working. 

''We have a distinguished visitor with us, to-day 
who has consented to remain a short time, so that we 
may make some sketches of him, from life. As we do 
not wish to weary our guest or to impose too much 
upon his patience, we must work faster than usual and 
try to get just as many sketches as possible while he is 
here. 

"Open your Drawing Books to a picture of a dog. 
Is our model like any one of the dogs you see, Philip?" 

"He looks a little like the middle picture in the top 
row, but his head is a different shape." 

"What is the difference.?" 

"The dog we are to study has a narrower head, and 
a longer and more slender nose." 

^JS'° y°" ®^^ ^"y ^^^^^ points of difference, Jessie? " 
(The pupils give various points of difference and of 

similarity between the dog before them and the sketches 

before them.) 

"Let us^study the lines of our dog, as he stands 
betore us. (The dog is supposed to have taken a posi- 
tion in which some of the pupils, at least, can see him in 
side view.) Of course he will change his position 
frequently, but we can all see him, at different times, 
sufficiently well so that we can rapidly draw a few lines 
locating the back of the head, the end of the nose, the 
size and direction of his neck, the line of his back, the 
under line of his body, the length of his body, the height 
of his legs, and the position of his tail. By the time you 

65 



OUTLINE OF DRAWING 



s- 



JR 



1^ 



have done this, or before, he will probably have changed 
his position. But from any position he takes, we can 
study these general proportions. Much of our work 
must be done from memory, and having the dog before 
us gives us a chance to refresh our memory as often as 
IS necessary. 

Having the shape of our dog blocked in, we can 
now compare our quick sketch with our model. What 
do you find to be the trouble with yours, Rachel?" 
"I think the head is too large for the body." 
"What do you think of yours, Harold?" 
"My sketch shows the body too thick." 
''And yours, Frank?" 
"The legs in my sketch a^e too short." 
(The pupils make various criticisms on their own 
work,^ brought out by questions from the teacher.) 

"Of course, these first sketches of yours show pro- 
portions, only. But if proportions are wrong, no 
amount of careful finish will make the drawing good. 
Study the model again, as he stands or moves about, and 
make such corrections as you can, in the proportions 
of the parts your first rough lines express. 

"When you have corrected your errors, study 
your model again, this time for the location of ears, 
eyes, nostrils, etc. Correct the placing of these parts 
after careful observation and comparison of your 
sketch with the dog. You are now ready to draw care- 
fully the shapes of the legs, body, head, and all of the 
parts. The dog will probably not stand still while you 
do this. You must seize your opportunity to study 
and draw the shape of any part that you can see. In 
finishing your drawing, try to give the outline a some- 
what gray and accented quality, like the sketches in the 
book, to express the hairy or furry character of the 
dog's coat. Last of all, put in any characteristic 
markings or spots that the model shows." 

After an exercise of this kind, the sketches of all 
the pupils should be displayed for class criticism. 



66 



I 



Suggestive Lesson No. 7. 

Subject: FIGURE DRAWING 

{For Grammar Grades) 

Before reaching the grammar grades, pupils are 
supposed to have made some progress in drawing from 
the figure. In the primary grades, drawing from the 
human figure, like animal drawing, is quite spontaneous 
in character, and is never subjected to rigid criticism or 
analysis. The children are, in those grades, chiefly in- 
terested in the various actions of the figure which they 
may desire to express in connection with their illustra- 
tions of stories or occupations. In the intermediate 
grades some analysis of proportions and parts has been 
made, and the pupils in grades seven and eight, if 
they have taken this work, know how to approach the 
subject. 

They have already learned that the details which 
seem so important and so interesting to little children, 
such as the buttons on shoes or jackets, the decorative 
pattern of an apron or shirt-waist, ruffles, bows-or other 
"trimmings," are really very unimportant indeed, com- 
pared with the leading lines of the figure, the propor- 
tionate length of head, waist, skirt or trousers, the length 
and positions of the arms, and the proportionate widths 
and depths of the figure. Perhaps they are so well 
grounded in essentials that they can slight the placing 
of the eyes, nose, mouth and ears, having found that a 
well-drawn figure of a pose is recognizable without the 
addition of features. They have found that in figure 
drawing, as well as in object or landscape drawing, 
attention to the big things leaves little to be done in 
regard to the drawing of the little things. 

We will suppose that the lesson following is given 

67 



OUTLINE OF DRAWING 



to a seventh-grade class that has had the preliminary 
training suggested above. 

• ' You will find on your desks a 6" xg" sheet of light 
tinted paper a soft sketch ng pencil, and your regular 
Drawing Book. We are to draw to-day from a pose, and 
I wish you to select a girl who wears a dark skirt and 
a light waist. Who shall it be.?" 

"Lucy has a light shirt-waist, a dark skirt, and 
some dark bows on her hair. " 

"Very well, Lucy shall pose. Here is a large box 
for her to stand on. It will be easier for Lucy and will 
add interest to our sketch if we gi»c her some occuoa- 
tion.^ What shall she do?" ^ 

"She might hokl a book, as though she were 
reading. 

"Yes, she may really read from this book, if she 
likes, or she might carry a basket or pail, a school-bag 
or a package of books; or she might put her hat on and 
carry a suit-case or an umbrella, or a white hat-box 
Lucy may decide what she would like to do." 
''I think I would Uke to be reading." 
"Very well. Before Lucy poses, let us open our 
Drawing Books and find similar figure sketches. Tell 
us about what you find, Howard." 

"The sketches show two stages in the drawing of 
a figure. The left sketch shows what has been done 
first in putting in the leading lines." 

"Yes; the proportions and parts of the figure have 
evidently been carefully studied before any masses have 
been laid in or definite drawing done. The head has 
been treated as a shape in itself, the waist has been 
blocked in, and the skirt handled in a similar way. The 
shape of the watering-pot, the arm, legs and feet have 
all been located. This sketch, you see, gives us the cor- 
rect placing, the general shape, and the right size of all 
the parts of the figure. Now Lucy may take her 
position on the box. Turn your side view to the class 
Lucy. 



68 




A First Sketch in the Study of a Pose 
69 



h I 



i 




First and Second Steps in Figure ami 
Action Drawings 



r 



^1 \ \ ^^''N. r\ 






I 

Showiw CoTTO, D„™g o,"^' 



s and Feet 



' I 



70 



SUGGESTIVE LESSONS 



I 



Hold your book easily and naturallv n« tUr.,, u 

reading a paragraph in class "fc^^^^^^^^^ 

make our sketch?" "c^ry, now tall shall we 

our pap^?." ' " ''•°"''' ■* " ""'^ '^- 'h"" 'he height of 
shoul7£'' Co"uttv':„'7nr hiX"'°-'^^ '°"^ ^^'^^ 

of your ^a"p^r„x'at"it'd:sr ^■?i;,rv,''^ ""•''1."' 

top of the head An ;„ k / ', *'" '"^"'f th* 
a/other dash T^locare The hT A,? '"""'"' P'"" 
ments must fall bet^eenX^Jl^.^ZerwlTr'- 
vertica penc held at arm'.. i^ ^u *^^^" >^^"r 

:n°Ll£j;'-£^3M'i:e-ii:j-t^ 

ii::^nfar'«r!S^fes«^^^^^ 

high as the waist line?" ^""^ °^ y^""" P^"^'' ^^ 

;; No; it is quite a little below the waist line " 

"I fiTd .r^"" ^"^^^'^ nieasurement. Mary>" 

below Ih'etat ?fnT ''^'"^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ P^-^-mes 

"What does this show, Alice?" 

head to'htrTais'tt llr^AT 'Ti-'^^ '^^ ^^ Lucy's 
waist to her heels ' '^^" '^^ ^'^^^"^^ f'-«'" her 

pencii^nd tlV t'estimat ?L''' — .— ts on your 
the wist in voir sketch hvn? ^^""^'"'r '^^^" '^^^^e 
you think th'e'wystlho'l^^'^oVnow h"^' ^t'' 
important points located-th^* top of Z h ^'^r 
waist and the hppi Moo P . ^"^ "^ad, the 

and find the height of the h'' J'^^'" ""''^ ^^^"^ P^"^"' 
distance to the wai^/t Ma^^^^^ as compared vith the 
Next, find bv oeS m« ^*'*' °" y^"*" sketch, 

skirt. Locate th"s wT"""''^' '^^ '^"^^^^ "f ^hc 
heights ofThe parts of o^figZ ^W '^^ '"''^"^^^"^ 
for the variou^ widthsTf tr^^,^^ ^ra^'^h^ 

71 



OUTLINE OF DR AWING 

thfh..!^^T'^ ¥t?" "^'^^ y°"^ P«"c>' the height of 
the head. Keep this measurement with your thumb 

tTh^^n' rS.^ h°n^o"talIy. and measure Ve^^dTof 
the head at about the level of the nose. Indicate this 
proportion m your sketch with blocking-in Hnes sug- 
gesting the shape of the head and face. Do the same 
r-\!^'^ l^apes of t.>e waist and skirt. L^ate t^e 
height of the shoes and the width of the legs. Measure 
and locate the position . nd action of the arm and Xk 
in Its shape, and also thu of the book. Your drawing 
at this stage should have something of the aDoearance 

? pa': Ltut the' " ''^ ^'f- L"^^ nia/?eTwhn: 
figures." ''°°"' ^'^"^"^ ^* y°"^ blocked-in 

at thi?^rnr °4.^,^"^'-^! P^oWtions is very important 
at tms point. The pupils should not be permitted to 

rnrl^rl^"" ""''' '^"'' ^'f^^^^^V sketch ifreasonab y 

bn^gihis riLrr • '' "^^^ '^'^ -^^-' '^-«- ^' 

I u"?^?r'^f^*"fl^^^^y^«^ Pencil rendering. Louis 
look at the sketch in the Drawing Book, and teU me 
which are the darkest masses shown there." 

Jhe nbbons, the collar, the belt and the stock- 

"Which masses are next in value, Martha?" 
^^ 1 he skirt and the shoes, I think " 

Alfredr ^^'""^ "''''''^' ^'^ ^ ""^^ "ghter still, 
^^^;'I think the masses of the hair and the watering- 

all, mdar '''"'' '''• ^""^ "^^''^ ^'^ '^^ "ghtest of 
;; The masses for theface.the hand, and the waisi. 

the sketch?" ''^"^ ''^'"^ '" ^" ^^^^ b^^" "^d in 

" I think about four values." 

o„^ '^^^ f ^^ ^^ ^"^ ^^" express as much in our sketch 
and use only four values. Lucy, will you stand aga^n 

72 



;:^.^:i::ua:::t:3t::ttvht 



#-- 



iipsaspiiiiaffl 



'^L LET MY HEART BE JUST IN SIGHT- 

EMILY DICKINSON 




WILLIAM 
CAXTON 
ENGLAND 
CHAUCER 
CANTEI^- 
URY TA= 
AED INN 
FIRKIN 
PJOV 



Practical Alphabets with a Suggestive 
Spacing of a Quotation 



73 



r 






iP 




74 



SUGGBSTIVE LESSONS 



I 

i 

i 



please? With long strokes that follow the direction of 
the hair (its arrangement and growth) lay on the value 
the hair trying to secure the value you do Are at one 
.M.oke. We must express the value of Lucy's hair 

nIv^^ '•'/''* '^u ''^'r °^ ^^^ 8^^^'« ^^^ in the book.' 
rlK^' i^ °" i.^^ ''^'."^ y°" "^ to express the dark 
nbbons. Lay this value on with forceful, vigorous 
strokes, obtaining the crisp, dark eifect at once. Going 
over pencil strokes a second time always injures the 
?h'T"^;. ?^i^'""^'"^the value of the skirt. Observe 
the length of the pencil strokes used in laying in the mass 
for the skirt in the book, and try to get^l sMar hTnd 
ling in your drawing. Finish the other part , in the 
same way, after deciding on the right values Tne waist, 
^ce, hands, and any other light values are to be express- 
ed in outhne, their values being shown by the value of 
the paper. Outlines for these parts should be ^ay 
and expressive, with occasional accents. To-mon-ow 
we will have a class criticism of the sketches mad^to 



I 



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75 



Suggestive List 
of Art Books and Art Materials 

ART BOOKS 

Graphic Drawing BfK)ks, Nos. i - . . r ^ . « j 
High School. ' *' ^' *♦' 5' 6, 7, 8 and 

Hand-Painted Color Charts, Nos , to 8 
Outl.ne Color Charts for Coloring N< ? .« « 
Art Education for High Schcx,Is ^ '" ^ 

TOPIC BOOKS OF ART EDUCATION 

1. Pictorial Representation 

2. Perspective Drawing 

3- fjgure and Animal Drawing 

4. Mechanical and Constructive Drawing 

5- Architectural Drawing ^ 

6. Design 

7. Historic Ornament and Art History 
How to Enjoy Pictures, by Mabel S Emerv 
Illustrated Exercises in Design, bv E izaberYr R u 
Pencil Sketching, by George^Koch ^ ^' ^''"^^ 

&nf ^^"""""^ Arrangement, by Frank A. 

With Pen and Ink, by James Hall 

W' rtr? '^T'V"«^ ""^ "'"'y Turner Bailey 
^'SP,^^^""'^ °^ "" ^'""P'^ B""''"'. by Salter 

f^^fL^l^'"K^y "'"O- Turner Bailey 
Art of the Ages, by Marie R. Garesche 

gHm" ?™'''r.n\''y C. W. Stoddard 



76 



f 



SUGGESTIVE LIST 



I 



Manual Arts Portfolios in five parts 

^ature s Aid to Design, by Bunce and Owe 
Prang Neutral Scale of Values 

ART MATERIALS AND WATER COLORS 

PRANCJ WATER COLORS 

Water Color Box No. i four cakes 

Water Color Box N*.. 2 -three cakes 

Water Color Box N.. vV four cok.s. No. 7 brush 

Water Color Box \ .. . fourwliolc pans semi-moist 



Water Color Hoy 



(). s 



tiirhi i:ilf p;ins semi-moist 



High-Sch(K>| Water CI,, \lnx No. ,6 sixteen half 

pansot scmi-moist and two brushes 
Water Color Cakes and I' ms for •nfilis" 
Moist Water Colors in Tubes - ivNenty-eight colors 
Tempera Water Colors in Tul -s twenty colors 

I empera Board for Tempera Pain , .ng (s.r.a for samph 

tiold and Silver Paint 

Mixing Tray 

Stick Printing Dyes, 3 pans of color, 6 sticks 

V^ eaving Papers in Book forni~20 sheets, 20 colors 

Water-Color Brushes- Nos. 6, 7,8, 10, and Double-end 
Brush (Nos. 4 and 7) 

Double-Lipped Water Pan 

trench Charcoal 



PRANG COLORED CRAYONS 

Art Education Crayons, No. 

crayons, Tuck Box 
Art Education Crayons, No. 

crayons, Hinged-cover Box 
Crayonex, No. 3—8 wax crayons 
Crayonex, No. 4—16 wax crayons 
Crayonex, No. 5—4 large size crayons 



I — 8 small earth 
2—8 large earth 



m 



// 



i 



ii 



If ^1 



it 



i! 



I i 



SPOOESn VE UST 

PJ^^NP COLORED CRAYONS (Continued) 

Colo"''°""~ "" "^y°"^- ^P'^ B™wn in 

Pastefl"'''lsP"''°"*~* "** crayons 
Artists' Pastel Crayons, 216 Colors 

"^"Cfletr""'""" ""'"'■" ('«"<' f°' Sample 

Alra^trN;;^%""3(r3''nS'f ^'"■''^ B-'''") 

^'"Knt^r'""'' ^°'" ' '"'' ' ^"""* ^°' ^'"' °f 

Erasograph Paper 

PRANG DRAWING PAPER ASSORTMENTS 
Primary Assortment (send for Lif, , f Contents) 
t^rammar Assortment (send for Li^. of Contents) 

PRANG SCHOOL DRAWING PORTFOLIOS 

Paper Portfolio— two pockets 
c S^^^^^^^ Portfolio— with tapes 

'^Xiu'Sltrsfr';'"'""^' """' ^^o'™' Soft- 

Soap Eraser 

Ink and Pencil Eraser 

PRANG INDIA INK 

I ounce, with penholder bottle 

I pint, bottle 

I Quart, bottle 
Round Pointed Scissors— 4" blade 
Sharp Pointed Scissors— 4" blade 

78 



OPART BOOKS AND ART MATERIALS 



^^Zttle ^~^"^""" individual bottle ; 2-ounce class 

Oil Dyes— eight colors 

Permanent Mixture— 4-ounce bottle 

PRANG STIXIT PASTE 
4-ounce Collapsible Tube 
4-ounce Large Mouthed Tin Can 
K-pint Tin Can 
i-pint Tin Can 
i-quart Tin Can 
I -gallon Tin Can 

Prang Atomizer-Japanned, with hinge eyelet 
Prang Stenci Brushes, No. S-round-3^inch diameter 
Prang Stencil Brushes, No. 7-round-^. nch d ame er 
Stencil and Woodblock Knife «nch diameter 

Stencil Board cut-5 x 6, 10x12, and 20x24 inches 

yards ^^^' ""^ ''"^" '" 'P^^'^ ^^ '°o 

Stencillex-cotton fabric-by the yard, 36 inches 

wide or m packages of 25 pieces, cut 9x12 
Hand-woven kussian Crash by the yard, 40 inches 

Art Linen by the yard, 32 inches wide 

?n^- M "^T ^u^'^ ^Y '^' y^*"^' 24 inches wide 
India Net by the yard, 44 inches wide 

India Hoss m %:-pound reels 

hanlcs^"^^"""'^^' '^'^'■'' '"^ natural- i^.pound 



I 



PRANG POTTERY MODELS 

Set No. 1—6 models, different forms and colors 

Set N^' ^ "''''^5'',' ''i'?^''^"' ^^^'■"^^ ^"d colors 
bet No. 3—10 models, different forms and colors 

79 



SUOGESnVE LIST 



fofecuTa'rf •'"'^'' "•" "P 50 in a box („„<, 

"'irdteclr^'""-^^ "^"-P'-- 7-9 inch« 
Wooden Models, Set No. a<^ „,odek, ,x. inches 

^" M°' ^i~^ ""^^'*> '*2 inches 
^«No. ,6-ismodels,2X4inches 

P^!f r""""§ ^'*'' '"8<^ ^bber type 
Hiawatha pictures, 8 pictures, in color 



^y 0/ these Jn Books or Art Materials may be f urchased 

or tnformatton had concernirtg them by ad^ZZg 

THE PRANG COMPANY 

New York, Chicago, Boston, Atlanta, Dallas, 

Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, Halifax 



80 



pi- -.■^■* "..'^■Ij""